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   >> MICROBIOLOGY | HOME |  
 

 DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

History:

 

-

Microbiology Department functioned as a separate Department in 1994 when Dr. Lalhmingmawii, MD Microbiology (PGIMER) joined at Civil Hospital, Aizawl (CHA) and headed the Department. Till that time the three main diagnostic Departments of Laboratory such as Pathology, Biochemistry and Microbiology along with Blood bank were all under one Laboratory Department.

 

 

 

 

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The first person who had Medical Laboratory qualification working at CHA was Mr. Clarence Joseph, BSc MLT (1975) as Laboratory Technician.

 

 

 

 

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The first specialist in Laboratory Medicine was Dr. KK Ghose, MD Microbiology, who joined CHA in 1978. Routine haematology, Urine and Stool R/E, Biochemical tests like Blood sugar, S. Cholesterol and Blood Urea were started. At the same time, Mrs. Lalrinawmi Fanai, DLO (BSc MLT) after completing her degree in PGIMER also joined the Department and started Bacteriology Culture & Sensitivity test.

 

 

 

 

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In 1979, Dr. Raju (Pathologist) has joined CHA and looked after the laboratory. More microbiological tests like ASO, RA and VDRL were started.

 

 

 

 

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In 1990, ELISA machine was installed at CHA and HIV test was done in collaboration with ICMR headed by Dr. Raju.

 

 

 

 

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ELISA test was performed by Mrs. Lalrinawmi Fanai.

 

 

 

 

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In 1996, HIV testing centre was shifted from Pathology Department to the concern Department of Microbiology. At that time it was called Blood Testing Centre.

 

 

 

 

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In 2001, Dr. Lalrempuii, MD Microbiology (JIPMER) was transferred from Lunglei to Microbiology Department, CHA.

 

 

 

 

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In 2002, National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) started External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for all the HIV testing centres. Due to the excellent performance, Microbiology Department, CHA was designated as State Reference Laboratory (SRL) for HIV testing.

 

 

 

 

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At the same year, National Surveillance Programme for Communicable Diseases (NSPCD) was started and Microbiology Department was incharge of the programme for laboratory aspect. Later, Integrated Diseases Surveillance Programme (IDSP) took over NSPCD and Microbiology Department is designated as L3 Laboratory for the State.

 

 

 

 

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In 2005, ART (Anti-Retroviral Therapy) programme was started, CD4 FACS COUNTER was installed. At the same year, RNTCP started a programme of External Quality Assessment Scheme for Sputum Microscopy. After undergoing a training programme at NTI (National TB Institute, Bangalore), the Microbiologists trained District TB Officer (DTO), Medical Officers (MOs), Laboratory Technicians and STLS of Mizoram regarding EQAS Programme.

 

 

 

 

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Reproductive and Child Health Programme (RCH): Microbiology Department worked with RCH Programme in conducting training for Laboratory Technicians in Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI)/ Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI).

 

 

 

 

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Bamboo Flowering and Family Combat Scheme (BAFFACOS): Microbiology Department took part in this programme regarding the diagnosis and prevention of Zoonotic Diseases Outbreak. Trainings on Zoonotic epidemic were conducted for all the MOs and Laboratory Technicians.

 

 

 

 

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In 2011 Dr. RSC Vanlalruati, MD Microbiology (RIMS) was also posted in the Department under NRHM.

 

 

 

Sub section/units

 

Under Microbiology, there are four (4) sections:

 

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Serology

 

-

Bacteriology

 

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Mycology

 

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Epidemic Prone Diseases (Swine Flu etc.)

 

 

 

Reference Laboratory for

 

 1.

HIV Testing

 

 2.

STI/RTI

 

 3.

Epidemic diseases - swine flu etc.

 

 

 

Activities

 

 

 

Serology:

 

 

 

 

-

HIV test

 

 

 

 

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Routine ICTC (Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre): HIV test is done for anyone who is interested in finding out their status. It is also done for OPD and Hospitalized patients.

 

 

 

 

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PPTCT (Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission): HIV test is done for all the pregnant women attending ANC who are willing to do the test.

 

 

 

 

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Early Infant Diagnosis (EID): For children below 18 months, blood samples are collected for PCR test and sent to NICED, Kolkatta.

 

 

 

 

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EQAS- SRL:  Since Microbiology Department is State Reference Laboratory for HIV test, Proficiency test for HIV is conducted for all the ICTCs of Mizoram quarterly and the same way, SRL also took part in Proficiency test conducted by National Reference Laboratory twice a year. In this EQAS programme, SRL scored 100% everytime.

 

 

 

 

-

Sentinel Surveillance: Every year surveillance test was conducted for 3 months in low risk groups like pregnant women attending ANC and high risk group like drug addicts (IVDU) and STD Clinic attendees. This is done to find out the prevalence of HIV infection.

 

 

 

 

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HBs Antigen test: For Hepatitis B infection

 

 

 

 

-

HCV Antibody test: For Hepatitis C infection

 

 

 

 

-

Widal test: For Enteric (Typhoid & Paratyphoid) Fevers

 

 

 

 

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Scrub typhus antibody test: For Scrub typhus cases (Tick bite)

 

 

 

 

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Dengue antigen & antibody test: For Dengue fever

 

 

 

 

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ASO test: For Streptococcal infection that can cause heart disease and arthritis

 

 

 

 

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RA test: For Rhematoid arthritis

 

 

 

 

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VDRL test: For Syphillis (STI)

 

 

 

 

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TPHA test: For confirmation of Syphillis

 

 

 

 

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CRP test: For chronic infections

 

 

 

 

Bacteriology:

 

 

 

 

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Culture & Sensitivity

 

 

 

 

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In-use-test (used for Hospital Ward, Disinfectant, Warmer & Phototherapy. This  sterility test is done quarterly)

 

 

 

 

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Water sterility testing: done in case of diarrhoeal outbreak

 

 

 

 

-

Gram’s stain

 

 

 

 

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AFB stain- Body fluids for TB

 

 

 

 

-

Albert’s stain for Diphtheria

 

 

 

 

Direct Microscopy- Fungus

 

 

 

 

-

Wet Mount

 

 

 

 

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India Ink Preparation

 

 

 

 

-

KOH Mount

 

 

 

 

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LCB Mount

 

 

 

 

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Gram’s stain

 

 

 

Other activities

 

 

 

 

Integrated Diseases Surveillance Programme (IDSP)

 

-

Surveillance

 

 

 

 

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Outbreak investigation- Swine flu, Bird flu etc. Blood samples are collected and sent to NICED, Kolkatta

 

 

 

 

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Training: Medical officers and Technicians

 

 

 

 

Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP)

 

-

Training: EQAS Training for Medical Officers, Laboratory Technicians and STLs regarding AFB Sputum Microscopy

 

 

 

 

Reproductive and Child Health (RCH)

 

-

Training for Laboratory Technicians regarding Laboratory Diagnostic Methods of RTI/STI

 

 

 

 

Mizoram State AIDS Control Society (MSACS)

 

Training:

 

-

ICTC Medical Officer incharge

 

-

ICTC Counsellor

 

-

ICTC Laboratory Technicians

 

-

PPTCT Laboratory Technicians

 

 

 

 

EQAS – SRL (State Reference Laboratory)

 

-

Training for Medical Officers and Laboratory Technicians twice a year

 

-

HIV test rechecking of 5% negative and 20% positive from all ICTCs, PPTCTs and Blood banks of Mizoram

 

-

HIV test rechecking  for all Sentinel Surveillance Centres of Mizoram

 

 

 

 

HIV Sentinel Surveillance

 

-

Pre-sentinel Surveillance Training for Medical Officers and Laboratory Technicians

 

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Sentinel Surveillance sample testing

 

 

 

INFRASTRUCTURE:

 

Staff strength

 

-

Doctor: 4 Nos.

 

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3 Nos. MD Microbiologists

 

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3 Nos. MD Microbiologists

 

-

2 Nos. Consultant (NF) - Regular

 

-

1 No. Specialist (NRHM Contract)

 

-

1 No. Technical Officer (MSACS Contract)

 

 

 

 

Technician: 7 Nos

 

-

2 Nos. Regular

 

-

2 Nos. ICTC (MSACS Contract)

 

-

1 No. ART (MSACS Contract)

 

-

2 Nos. IDSP

 

-

1 No. MSc Microbiology (IDSP Contract)

 

-

1 No. MSc Biotechnology (IDSP Contract)

 

 

 

 

Counsellor:

 

-

2 Nos. (MSACS Contract)

 

 

 

 

Computer Operator:

 

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1 No. (IDSP)

 

 

 

 

Peer Educator:

 

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1 No. (MSACS Contract)

 

 

 

 

IV Grade:

 

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1 No. (Regular)

 

 

 

Counselling Units: 2 Counselling Rooms for HIV testing

 

 

 

Machinery available:

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FACS Counter for CD4 Count

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ELISA

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Laminar Air Flow (Bio-safety Cabinet)

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Incubator

-

Centrifuge

-

VDRL Shaker

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Olympus Microscope

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Deep Freezer

-

Refrigerator

-

Hot-Air Oven

-

Autoclave

 

 

VISIT TIMING

 

HIV test:

 

 

Weekdays: From 9:30 AM to 4:00 PM

 

 

Saturday:   From 9:30 to 12:00 Noon

 

 

 

 

 

CD4 Count:

 

 

Weekdays: From 9:30 AM to 1:00 PM

 

 

Saturday:    Not done

 

 

 

 

 

Other investigations:

 

 

Weekdays: From 9:30 AM to 2:00 PM

 

 

Saturday:   From 9:30 to 12:00 Noon

 

 

 

 

 

AVERAGE PATIENT CASE STUDIES (Average workload per year)

Sl. No.

Name of test

Number of

test done

No of

positive

1.

HIV

9100

452

2.

HBs Antigen

2135

93

3.

HCV Antibody

1060

146

4.

Scrub typhus

107

28

5.

ASO

510

 

6.

RA

522

 

7.

Widal

1370

 

8.

CRP

394

 

9.

VDRL

1924

 

10.

Zn & Gram’s stain

79

 

11.

Culture & Sensitivity

1972

 

12.

CD4 Count

4322

 

 

Total no. of test

23495

 

 

 

PUBLIC AWARENESS SCHEMES/PROGRAMMES:

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HIV/AIDS Awareness Programme: The Department participated in the Awareness Programme by distributing pamphlets and the Microbiologists participated as resource person in Awareness Campaign at various places – School, Colleges, Churches, Audiovisual Campaign etc.

 

 

 

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Swine Flu/ Bird Flu Awareness Programme: Participated in Audiovisual Awareness Campaign.

 

 

 

RESEARCH/ SPECIAL STUDIES:

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Research on ‘Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C’ was done in collaboration with ICMR – Dibrugarh Medical College.

 

 

 

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Microbiology Department has been assessed from time to time by NACO using

 

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Checklist Level II prepared by WHO (World Health Organisation)

 

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Checklist of CDC (Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA) – Laboratory

 

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Management Framework and Guidelines, Atlanta

 

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Checklist of ASCP

 

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International Standard Organisation Geneva 2007- Medical Laboratories ISO-15189

 

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National Institute of Health – Laboratory Assessment Visit Report

 

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National Institute of Health – Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement Monitors

 

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National Institute of Health – Laboratory, Chemical, Biohazard and Occupational Safety, Containment and Disposal

 

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South African National Accreditation System

 

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PPD, Wilmington, North Carolina Laboratory Report

 

 

 

FUTURE PLANNING:

 

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Steps have been taken to improve the quality of tests performed in this Department. For this Standard Operative Procedure (SOPs) based on ISO-15189 for Medical Laboratories have been written for most of the tests and being followed. And for some of the tests which have not been written, it is planned to be completed in the near future. Also certain instruments have been calibrated to meet the specified standards.

 

 

 

 

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Quality Manual for Microbiology Department is being prepared and is planned to be completed soon.

 

 

 

 

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Microbiology Department is planning to acquire NABL (National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories).

 

 

 

 

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All the laboratory personnel are trained to maintain Good Laboratory Practices and oblige universal work precautions and Biohazard Management.

 

 

 

 

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All the laboratory workers are trained to achieve and maintain high working standard for patient satisfaction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

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